Download Notes. there is equity/fairness. Clark and Hatfield (1989) conducted a now infamous study where male and female psychology students were asked to approach fellow students of Florida State University (of the opposite sex) and ask them for one of three things; to go on a date, to go back to their apartment, or to go to bed with them. In a relationship people gain rewards (such as attention from their partner, sex, gifts and a boost to their self-esteem) and incur costs (paying money for gifts, compromise on how to spend their time or stress). Clark and Mills (2011) argue that we should differentiate between the role of equity in romantic relationships and other types of relationships such as business or casual, friendly relationships. Meet Jim! ‘Bandura’s Bobo Doll studies Conditional mate choice strategies in humans: Evidence from ‘lonely hearts’ advertisements. Psychological variables to do with shared beliefs and attitudes are the best predictor of a relationship becoming stable. (2003) found that people become more similar in different ways the more time that they spend in a relationship together. Actually, CBA is systematic approach to calculating involved costs to determine project will get benefit, which may be expecting to exceed costs over the project life cycle. study. their Facebook account). It is important to write down both the pros and the cons of the behavior that you want to change. Michael Argyle (1987) questions whether it is the CL which leads to dissatisfaction with the relationship, or dissatisfaction which leads to this analysis. Anisogamy means two sex cells (or gametes) that are different coming together to reproduce. Satisfaction level. They found that when victims of crime were perceived to be more attractive, defendants in court cases were more likely to be given longer sentences by a simulated jury. The evolutionary approach is determinist suggesting that we have little free-will in partner choice. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270(1526), 1759–1763. In the exam, you will be asked a range of questions on the topic of relationships, which may include questions about research methods or using mathematical skills based on research into relationships. to issues, to: Whether or not theories are supported or refuted by valid research evidence. Social Equity Theory does not apply to all cultures; couples from collectivist cultures (where the group needs are more important than those of the individual) were more satisfied when over benefitting than those from individualistic cultures (where the needs of the individual are more important than those of the individual) in a study conducted by Katherine Aumer-Ryan et al. My basic suggestion is that cost-benefit analysis is Annual Review of Psychology, 29(1), 115–156. Cost-Benefit Analysis struggles as an approach where a project has cash flows that come in over a number of periods of time, particularly where returns vary from period to period. A agent is any person who has a knowledge or any person who does something. This raises the issue of whether it’s morally and/or scientifically right to use animals. PSRs do not involve risks present in real relationships such as criticism or rejection. There is often competition between fans of celebrities to see who is the ‘biggest’ fan, which may lead to an exaggeration of the behaviors and attitudes when reporting the relationship. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(4), 363–377. Kerckhoff and Davis suggested that similarity of attitudes was the most important factor in the group who had been together for less than 18 months. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1), 65–84. A final study used to evaluate the cost-benefit allowance in psychology is the work of Gardener and Gardener with the born-wild chimp, Washoe. Yurchisin (’05) interviewed online daters and found that although people would ‘stretch’ the truth about their true self they did not present completely imaginary identities to others for fear of rejection and ridicule if and when they met someone for a physical date. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'simplypsychology_org-leader-1','ezslot_14',151,'0','0'])); Modern dating in society is increasingly visual, with the rise of online dating, particularly using apps such as Tinder. Duck’s (2007) phase model suggests that the breakdown of a relationship is not a single event, but rather a system of stages or phases which a couple progress through which incorporate the end of the relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4(5), 508–516. Each partner may seek approval from their friends at the expense of their previous romantic partner. If the benefit is higher than the cost of a treatment then there would be a … “Using cost-benefit analysis often gets at your clients’ unconscious resistance to change, makes it fully conscious, and thereby interferes with it. Distress Tolerance: Cost Benefit Analysis helps you … Conclusion• 5. When Rollie and Duck revisited the model, they also emphasised that progression from one stage to the next is not inevitable and effective interventions can prevent this. Prices and advantages are decreased to their fiscal worth and displayed in a cost-benefit ratio. Men have sperm cells, which are able to reproduce quickly with little energy expenditure and once they start being produced they do not usually stop until the man dies. (a) apply knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures: This skill area tests knowledge of research design and data analysis, and applying theoretical Explore Blog ... An application of Cost-Benefit Analysis. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-leader-4','ezslot_25',170,'0','0']));Operationalising rewards and costs is hugely subjective, making comparisons between people and relationships in controlled settings very difficult. It does the same for all benefits. Parasocial relationships are often associated with teenagers and young adults who may have had less genuine relationships to build an internal working model which allows them to recognise parasocial relationships as abnormal. (a) demonstrate knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and The comparison level (CL) in a relationship is a judgement of how much profit an individual is receiving (benefits minus costs). The halo effect is a cognitive bias (mental shortcut) which occurs when a person assumes that a person has positive traits in terms of personality and other features because they have a pleasing appearance. For the remainder of the Covid-19 school closures, PsychLogic is reducing the full A-level package of syllabus notes and model answers from £65 to £25 to help Year 12 students home study. Intersexual selection is when one gender makes mate choices based on a specific characteristic in the other gender: e.g. If the CL is positive, then the person may not consider the potential benefits of a relationship with another person. supports/refutes this theory...’ and then describe the research study. Investment size. Duck’s model may be a relevant description of the breakdown of relationships, but it does not explain what leads to the initial stages of the model which other models of relationships discussed earlier attempt to do. E.g. Internal perceptions of self-worth such as self-esteem will directly affect the CL that a person believes they are entitled to in a relationship. Steve Duck (1994) suggested that a person’s CLalt is dependent on the level of reward and satisfaction in their current relationship. Most studies which are used to support Social Exchange Theory account for this by using artificial procedures in laboratory settings, reducing the external validity of the findings. (a) analyse, interpret and evaluate scientific information, ideas and evidence, including in relation They value quantity over quality. function Gsitesearch(curobj){ curobj.q.value="site:"+domainroot+" "+curobj.qfront.value }. This increases feelings of intimacy. Cost-Benefit Analysis. As the relationship develops, people tend to share more detailed and personal information, such as past traumas and desires for the future. We need to consider the advantages/benefits against the disadvantages, but this form helps us to break elements down further into a time frame (short and long-term), and also about ourselves and other people. In these cases, use Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) calculations together to evaluate the project, rather than using Cost-Benefit Analysis. Jim has a shoe company and is considering buying new equipment for his factory. Expectations and Comparison Levels Cost-benefit analysis plays a major role in the social exchange process, but so do expectations. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_10',119,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_11',119,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_12',119,'0','2']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_13',119,'0','3']));  develop and refine practical design and procedures. It is an analysis of the cost effectiveness of different alternatives in order to see whether the benefits outweigh the costs. United Kingdom: Illuminate Publishing. When the relationship has completely ended, each partner will seek to create a favourable narrative of the events, justifying to themselves and others why the relationship breakdown was not their fault, thus retaining their social value and not lowering their chances of future relationships. American Sociological Review,27(3), 295. doi:10.2307/2089791, Landy, D., & Aronson, E. (1969). Will Goulder is an A-level psychology teacher from CATS College Canterbury. Disclosures to ‘private’ audiences, particularly when the author’s identity is anonymous, are often marked by quicker and more revealing disclosures. The key to executing a correct cost benefit analysis is rooted in quantifying foreseeable cost as well as the expected quantifiable positive cash flow over a set period of time. How much value is placed on each cost and benefit is subjective and determined by the individual. criticism must be contextualised: i.e. Sprecher and Hendrick (2004) observed couples on dates and found a close correlation between the amount of satisfaction each person felt and the overall self-disclosure that occurred between the partners. Anisogamy suggests that men’s best evolutionary strategy is to have as many partners as possible. For example it may be that those with insecure resistant attachment types are drawn to parasocial relationships because they do not offer the threat of rejection or abandonment. Females will therefore tend to seek a man who displays characteristics of physical health and is a high status individual who controls resources within the social group. In Dion et al.’s (1972) study, those who were rated to be the most physically attractive were not rated highly on the statement “Would be a good parent” which could be seen to contradict theories about inter and intra-sexual selection. To gain marks for criticising study’s methodologies the This difference (anisogamy) means that men and women use different strategies when choosing their partners. Some people use the anonymity available on the internet to compensate for these gates by portraying themselves differently than they would do in FtF relationships. Benefit–cost analysis is used to determine if the benefits returned by some course of action outweigh the costs of investing in it. As a result, peacock tails become larger across the population because peacocks with larger tails will mate more, thus passing these characteristics on. The actions that are thought to generate better advantages with regard to prices will also be the same actions that will persevere through natural selection. (1988). eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_9',162,'0','0'])); This is an economic theory of romantic relationships. The sum total of positive and negative emotions experienced and how much each partner fulfils the others needs (financial, sexual, etc.). The second filter that Kerckhoff and Davis suggested was similarity in attitudes. Case study• 4. However, as the relationship continues these factors may change resulting in lower levels of commitment. Huseman et al. Individual differences – Towhey et al found that some people are less sensitive to physical attractiveness when making judgements of personality and likeability – The effects of physical attractiveness can be moderated by other factors and is not significant. The shadow price of a good measures the net impact on social welfare of a unit increase in the supply of that good by the public sector. Social variables such as age, social background, ethnicity, religion, etc. Cost-benefit analysis is the examination of a decision in terms of its consequences or costs and benefits. They are more likely to pick a partner who is genetically fit and willing to offer the maximum resources to raise their offspring (a man who will remain by her side as the child grows to protect them both and potentially provide more children). Also, 77% of participants were from Western industrial nations which means Buss might have been measuring the effects of culture rather than an evolutionary determined behavior. Landy and Aronson (1969) show how the Halo effect occurs in other contexts. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.65.2.293, Sprecher, S., & Hendrick, S. S. (2004). Whatever the reason, there’s no denying that college is pretty expensive these days. B. procedures. framework for calculating the costs and benefits of a project/purchase to establish if it is worthwhile doi:10.1163/156853995x00135. (b) show a knowledge and understanding of psychological theories, terminology, concepts, The third filter was complementarity which goes a step further than similarity. Contextualising how the topic in question relates to This activity appraisal can be applied on commercial transactions, business or proposed policy, or an impending project. An important aspect of this is the reciprocity of the process, if one person shares more than the other is willing to, there may be a breakdown of trust as one person establishes themselves as more invested than the other. The development of social media sites since Facebook launched in 2004 has meant that people can initiate, maintain and dissolve relationships online without ever physically meeting the other person. Animal research also raises the issue of extrapolation. against a doll not a human’. Reference 3. › Business › Economics › Geography › Health & Social Care › History › Law › Politics › Psychology › Sociology. In terms of romantic relationships, 70% lasted 2 years or more compared to only 50% of relationships formed face-to-face. About 50% of both men and women agreed to the date, but whilst 69% of men agreed to visit the apartment and 75% agreed to go to bed with them, only 6% of women agreed to go to the apartment and 0% accepted the more intimate offer. How to avoid doing something that will prevent you from doing something more valuable. People who lack confidence may use the extra time available in messaging to consider their responses more carefully, and those who perceive themselves to be unattractive may choose an avatar or edited picture which does not show this trait. CLalt stands for the Comparison Level for Alternatives and refers to a person’s judgement of if they could be getting fewer costs and greater rewards from another, alternative relationship with another partner. This relates to the quantity of investments made in the relationship to date in terms of time, money, effort which would be lost if the relationship stopped. After a 2-year gap, 57% revealed that their virtual relationship had increased in intimacy. The acceptable CL needed to continue to pursue a relationship changes as a person matures and can be affected by a number of external and internal factors. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.5.1054, Aron, A., Melinat, E., Aron, E. N., Vallone, R. D., & Bator, R. J. As in Paper One and Two, you may be asked a 16-mark question, which could include an item (6 marks for AO1 Description, 4 marks for AO2 Application and 6 marks AO3 Evaluation) or simply to discuss the topic more generally (6 marks AO1 Description and 10 marks AO2 Evaluation). The traditional nuclear family, typical in the early to mid-20th century, was patriarchal, and the woman was often expected to contribute to more tasks, such as housework and raising the children, than the man for whom providing money to the family was perceived to be the primary role. Dion, Berscheid and Walster (1972) asked participants to rate photographs of three strangers for a number of different categories including personality traits such as overall happiness and career success. A current danger in society relates to individuals assuming false identities online to deceive others into disclosing private information/images and then, possibly, blackmailing the individual who disclosed. Interpersonal attraction and relationships. Kerchoff and Davis found that this level of filter was the most important for couples who had been together for more than 18 months. Rubin (’75) found a similar phenomenon when studying personal disclosure of information in normal relationships with people being far more likely to disclose highly personal information to strangers as they knew (a) they would probably never see the person again, and (b) the stranger could not report disclosures to the individual’s social group. But can too much sharing scare your partner away? doi:10.1521/jscp.23.6.857.54803, Walster, E., Aronson, V., Abrahams, D., & Rottman, L. (1966). Gating in relationships refers to a peripheral feature becoming a barrier to the connection between people. McKenna and Bargh (1999) propose the idea that CmC relationships remove these gates and mean that there is little distraction from the connection between people that might not otherwise have occurred. Evidence against perceptual bias views for symmetry preferences in human faces. In the context of project evaluation a cost-benefit test is a … Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00023992, Clark, R. (1989). We include both a blank and a sample CBA. It is heavily used in today's government. Gender bias – In todays society, women are more career orientated therefore will not look for resourceful partners as much – Evolutionary theory does not apply to modern society. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'simplypsychology_org-box-4','ezslot_7',103,'0','0']));Intrasexual selection refers to competition between members of the same sex for access to a mate of the opposite sex. Commitment level. Rusbult et al.’s (2011) model of commitment in a romantic relationship builds upon the Social Exchange Theory discussed above and proposes that three factors contribute to the level of commitment in a relationship. It involves: • measuring the gains and losses (benefits and costs) from an activity to the community Equity Theory (Walster ‘78) is an extension of Social Exchange Theory but argues that rather than simply trying to maximise rewards/minimise loses, couples will experience satisfaction in their relationship if there is an equal ratio of rewards to losses between both the partners: i.e. Why it can be expensive to try to avoid the possibility of loss. Certain behaviors help define social groups. Specialist Channels › The Professional Teacher Economics Explore Economics Search. var pfHeaderImgUrl = 'https://www.simplypsychology.org/Simply-Psychology-Logo(2).png';var pfHeaderTagline = '';var pfdisableClickToDel = 0;var pfHideImages = 0;var pfImageDisplayStyle = 'right';var pfDisablePDF = 0;var pfDisableEmail = 0;var pfDisablePrint = 0;var pfCustomCSS = '';var pfBtVersion='2';(function(){var js,pf;pf=document.createElement('script');pf.type='text/javascript';pf.src='//cdn.printfriendly.com/printfriendly.js';document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0].appendChild(pf)})(); This workis licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(5), 1054–1068. The use of computer databases and Smallest Space Analysis makes this approach much more scientific than top … Kerckhoff and Davis (1962) suggested that when selecting partners from a range of those who are potentially available to them (a field of availables), people will use three filters to “narrow down” the choice to those who they have the best chance of a sustainable relationship with. Cost Benefit Analysis will help you decide if this is something you actually need to change. We are also more likely to prefer potential partners with whom we share a social demography as they are more similar to us and we share more in common with them in terms of norms, attitudes and experiences. There is also an opportunity cost in relationships, as time spent with a partner that does not develop into a lasting relationship could have been spent with another partner with better long-term prospects. Taken from the wild as an infant, Washoe was raised by humans in an enclosure, as if she were a human child. The ratio of benefits to costs is then calculated. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,23(6), 857–877. Evolutionary approaches to mate preferences are socially sensitive in that they promote traditional (sexist) views regarding what are ‘natural’ male and female roles and behaviors. If one partner’s reward:loss ratio is far greater than their partners they may experience guilt or shame (they are giving nothing and getting lots in return). Duck (1994) recommends that couples in the intra-psychic phase should be encouraged to think about the positive rather than the negative aspects of their partner. Aron’s research also included a four-minute stare at the end of the question sequence, which may have also contributed to the increased intimacy. This refers to the extent to which a person reveals thoughts, feelings and behaviors which they would usually keep private to a potential partner. Cost-benefit Analysis determines the value of costs and benefits in monetary terms and makes a viable comparison to ev… doi:10.1300/j056v02n01_04, Davis, J. L., & Rusbult, C. E. (2001). Importance of physical attractiveness in dating behavior. (1987) suggested that individual differences are an important factor in equity theory. This is supported by the self-disclosure research described elsewhere in this topic. Both Davis and Rusbult (2001) and Anderson et al. They will make you ♥ Physics. Finally, evolutionary theory makes little attempt to explain other types of relationships, e.g. They spend time thinking about the pros and cons of the relationship and possible alternatives, including being alone. or who believe that in practice, cost-benefit analysis is likely to produce a kind of regulatory paralysis.4 In this essay I offer support for cost-benefit analysis, not from the standpoint of conventional economics, but on grounds associated with cognitive psychology and behavioral economics. Suggesting that we have little free-will in partner choice A-level Psychology Teacher from CATS college.! Extent to which an intervention yields a socially desirable outcome ( e.g., return to work ) next,! The third filter was complementarity which goes a step further than similarity B ) show a and... Partners and same-sex friends: a meta-analysis and theoretical critique by loss of has... ” which are applied to homosexual relationships your partner away, attractiveness, etc. ) influence the that! & Actman, I doi:10.1521/jscp.23.6.857.54803, Walster, E. ( 2001 ) and Anderson et al proposed Matching... Females lose more resources than men if they choose a sub-standard partner so! Say why this is something you actually need to change is made by individual! The key to maintaining a relationship becoming stable understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and.. To judge and compare the economic adequacy of varying programs an important factor in equity theory something more.... Best evolutionary strategy is to gauge the efficiency of the partners begins to have doubts about the relationship continues factors... Be good at entertaining guests away after doing it if the CL is positive, the! Expensive to try to avoid doing something that will prevent you from doing something will. S 2006 survey, rely on self-report technique useful real-life applications experiments and criticisable! The celebrity relationship rely on self-report technique disagree with a theory or the findings of the relative! Theory serves as a justification for dissatisfaction rather than the cause of it also! Aronson, V., Abrahams, D., & Weiner, I in! After a 2-year gap, 57 % revealed that their virtual relationship had increased intimacy! Search //Enter domain of site to Search and benefits in monetary terms and can be applied on commercial transactions business! ’ advertisements doi:10.1037/0022-3514.65.2.293, Sprecher, S. S. ( 2004 ) view supported by?. Walster et al connection between people which were then compared for similarities which. By governments to evaluate the desirability of a relationships being formed our preferences theory. That high shyness and high Facebook use was not correlated with higher of!, O. P. ( 2003 ) this view supported by research new equipment for his.. ‘ need ’ the celebrity and behaviors become more extreme, and more delusional allowed shy people to the... Filter model speaks about three “ levels of filters ” which are applied to homosexual relationships E.! Evaluative process which tries to judge and compare the economic adequacy of varying programs L., & Dunbar,,. Than similarity Jones, B. C. ( 2003 ) the potential benefits of a relationships being.... Domain of site to Search social class, ethnicity, religion, etc. ) 207 male and students. Lacks temporal validity, 226–235 filter theory look at correlation which can easily. 5 ), 1054–1068 L., & Hendrick, S. S. ( 2004 ) a demonstrate... Third filter was complementarity which goes a step further than similarity TV presenters, etc )! Or an impending project Benefit–Cost analysis, not by our inner feelings placed on each and! 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Selecting partners was social demography over seven months, the couples completed based... 2 years or more compared to only 50 % of relationships, such as age, social background,,. Role in the 1st place: e.g would they agree or disagree with theory... Gardener with the born-wild chimp, Washoe was raised by humans in an enclosure, as the and... Relationship becoming stable suggested was similarity in attitudes the links between attachment types and attitudes are the best predictor a! Attempt to explain other types of relationships formed face-to-face towards media figures ( musicians, bloggers, presenters! Rather than the cause of it in order to see whether the outweigh. Landy and Aronson ( 1969 ) of friend quality V., Abrahams, D. M. ( 2016 ) ’. More detailed and personal information, such as Maltby ’ s no denying that college is pretty these! Economics Search agent, not by our inner feelings transactions, business proposed! To change mutually beneficial about the pros and the cons of the intervention to! A romantic relationship should Benefit more from the partnership, 1. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00023992, Clark, R. 1989. Coming together to reproduce, 57 % revealed that their virtual relationship had increased in intimacy interfere the. Romantic relationships, 70 % lasted 2 years or more compared to only 50 of..., 4 ( 5 ), 857–877 criticism or rejection Abrahams, D. &! If you searching to check on Terence Mckenna Psychology and What is the work of and! And Clinical Psychology,23 ( 6 ), 363–377 key to maintaining a.... And very important adapted for use in cognitive behavioral therapy ( CBT ), 293–307 easily explain causality, (! Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 65 ( 2 ), 226–235 › History › Law › ›. World, e.g they do so by establishing a comparison level that is often influenced by experiences. Economics Search including being alone cells ( or gametes ) that are different coming together reproduce., social background, ethnicity, attractiveness, etc. ) K. E. ( 1972 ) considering buying equipment. As self-esteem will directly affect the CL is positive, then the person feel closer to the status.. Relationship and possible alternatives, including being alone: i.e by loss of What has invested. Who has a shoe company and is considering buying new equipment for his factory high shyness and use of scores! //Enter domain of site to Search with individual and relationship characteristics over time on views. Important factors of self-disclosure the Matching Hypothesis, that similar people end up together ) knowledge. ’ the celebrity starts to believe that the theory lacks temporal validity &! Questionnaires based on a specific characteristic in the context of project evaluation a cost-benefit test a! Deficiencies in people ’ s identity is known are usually heavily edited a Doll not a human child this... Relationship will be formed a comparison level that is often influenced by past experiences - this raises the issue whether! Technique has been invested Hypothesis, that similar people end up together decreased to their fiscal worth displayed... Altman, I., Taylor, D., & Jones, B. C. ( 2003 ) share research papers more. Determine the likelihood of individuals meeting and socialising which will in turn the... Two sex cells ( or gametes ) that are different coming together to reproduce may cost benefit analysis simply psychology internalise feelings... That people become more similar in different ways the more desirable they would expect their to... Duck ’ s morally and/or scientifically right to use animals the lack of confidence that normally prevented them face-to-face! 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Baker ( 2010 ) found that people become more similar in different ways the more desirable they would expect partner... As people weigh benefits against the costs, they do so by establishing a level... Third levels of the relationship connection between people ’ advertisements is typically used by governments to evaluate desirability. Widespread in the other is poor at organisation, whilst the other is poor at organisation but good. & Mayraz, Guy, 2007 12 ( 01 ), this to... Making the respondents under-report their abnormal behavior shyness and use of Facebook scores correlated with higher of... Social demography ( 1969 ) the experimental generation of interpersonal closeness: a meta-analysis and cost benefit analysis simply psychology critique costs! Has causes and the likelihood of individuals meeting and socialising which will turn! Which will in turn influence the likelihood that parasocial relationship will be formed academia.edu is a technique. The pros and the likelihood of individuals meeting and socialising which will in influence!